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7-Keto Henwood

7-Keto® Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Jan 8;254(1):124-6. An escalating dose oral gavage study of 3beta-acetoxyandrost-5-ene-7, 17-dione (7-oxo-DHEA-acetate) in rhesus monkeys. Henwood SM1, Weeks CE, Lardy H. Abstract To test the effects of 7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone-3 acetate (hereafter 7-ODA) in Rhesus macaques the steroid was administered by oral gavage to two male and two female monkeys. Dose levels of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day were administered on days 1, 3, and 5 respectively, and 1,000 mg/kg on days 7 through 11. Each group received the dose in a volume of 10 ml/kg BW. All animals survived to the scheduled sacrifice on day 12. No adverse clinical effects of 7-ODA were observed at the 250 or 500 mg/kg doses. Females vomited on non-treatment days and all animals vomited on some days after being given the 1000 mg/kg dose. Excessive salivation was observed before or immediately after dosing on days 9 through 11. Appearance, behavior and body weights were not altered by the treatments. Visual examination of all body cavities, and macroscopic and microscopic examination of 42 different organs and tissues found no lesions or abnormalities. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9920744 Read More

7-Keto Lardy

7-Keto® Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Jan 8;254(1):120-3. An acute oral gavage study of 3beta-acetoxyandrost- 5-ene-7,17-dione (7-oxo-DHEA-acetate) in rats. Lardy H1, Henwood SM, Weeks CE. Abstract The present study was done to assess the tolerance of rats for 3-acetoxyandrost-5-ene-7,17-dione (7-oxo-DHEA-acetate, 7-ODA) when administered as a single oral gavage dose. Five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (Crl:CD (SD) BR VAF/Plus) (five/sex/group) were treated with 7-ODA at a dose level of 0 (control), 250, 500, 1000, or 2,000 mg/kg of body weight in a dose volume of 10 ml/kg. Food and water were provided ad libitum. All animals survived in good health to the scheduled sacrifice on Day 15. The single oral administration of 7-ODA had no apparent effects on body weight. Food consumption was significantly higher for all female treated groups during week two; however, the statistically significant differences were not considered to be of clinical consequence. Treatment caused no apparent changes of gross or microscopic anatomical structures of nine different organs. This study demonstrated that the no-observable adverse effect level for a single oral dose of 7-ODA in male and female rats was 2,000 mg/kg. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9920743 Read More


Aller-7® Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2003;29(3):107-15. Mast cell stabilization, lipoxygenase inhibition, hyaluronidase inhibition, antihistaminic and antispasmodic activities of Aller-7, a novel botanical formulation for allergic rhinitis. Amit A1, Saxena VS, Pratibha N, D’Souza P, Bagchi M, Bagchi D, Stohs SJ. Abstract Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, rose fever or summer catarrh, is a major challenge to health professionals. A large number of the world’s population, including approximately 40 million Americans, suffers from allergic rhinitis. A novel, botanical formulation (Aller-7) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, T. bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and P. longum, which have a proven history of efficacy and health benefits. The clinical manifestations of allergy are due to a number of mediators that are released from mast cells. The effect of Aller-7 on rat mesenteric mast cell degranulation was studied by incubating different concentrations of Aller-7 and challenging them with a degranulating agent, compound 48/80. The inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was determined against lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase, the key enzymes involved in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory responses. Furthermore, most of these manifestations are due […] Read More


Aller-7® Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2004;30(3):99-109. Antioxidant properties of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis. D’Souza P1, Amit A, Saxena VS, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Stohs SJ. Abstract Allergic rhinitis, a frequently occurring immunological disorder affecting men, women and children worldwide, is a state of hypersensitivity that occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollen, mold, mites or dust. Allergic rhinitis exerts inflammatory response and irritation of the nasal mucosal membranes leading to sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy, watery and swollen eyes. A novel, safe polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. In this study, the antioxidant efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated by various assays including hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion scavenging assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The protective effect of Aller-7 on free radical-induced lysis of red blood cells and inhibition of nitric oxide release by Aller-7 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages were determined. Aller-7 exhibited concentration-dependent scavenging activities toward biochemically generated hydroxyl […] Read More

Aller-7 Pratibha

Aller-7® Int J Tissue React. 2004;26(1-2):43-51. Anti-inflammatory activities of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis Pratibha N1, Saxena VS, Amit A, D’Souza P, Bagchi M, Bagchi D. Abstract Allergic rhinitis is an immunological disorder and an inflammatory response of nasal mucosal membranes. Allergic rhinitis, a state of hypersensitivity, occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollens or dust. A novel, safe polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. Since inflammation is an integral mechanistic component of allergy, the present study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of Aller-7 in various in vivo models. The efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated in compound 48/80-induced paw edema both in Balb/c mice and Swiss Albino mice, carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar Albino rats and Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was also determined and compared with ovomucoid. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, Aller-7 demonstrated 62.55% inhibition against compound 48/80-induced paw edema in Balb/c mice, while under the same conditions prednisolone […] Read More

ChromeMate Thirunavukkarasu

ChromeMate® Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Aug;291(2):H820-6. Niacin-bound chromium enhances myocardial protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirunavukkarasu M1, Penumathsa SV, Juhasz B, Zhan L, Cordis G, Altaf E, Bagchi M, Bagchi D, Maulik N. Abstract A novel niacin-bound, chromium-based energy formula (EF; InterHealth Nutraceuticals, Benicia, CA) has been developed in conjunction with D-ribose, caffeine, ashwagandha extract (containing 5% withanolides), and selected amino acids. We have assessed the efficacy of oral administration of EF (40 mg x kg body wt(-1) x day(-1)) in male and female rats over a period of 90 consecutive days on the cardiovascular and pathophysiological functions in an isolated rat heart model. After 30, 60, and 90 days of treatment with EF, the hearts of male and female rats were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion and were measured for myocardial ATP, creatine phosphate (CP), phosphorylated AMP kinase (p-AMPK), and heat shock proteins. Myocardial ATP and CP levels were increased in both male and female rats after EF treatment compared with the controls. Western blot analyses were performed to quantify the expression of stress-related proteins such as heat shock proteins (HSP-70, -32, and -25) and are found to be […] Read More

ChromeMate Baqchi 2002

ChromeMate® Toxicology. 2002 Oct 30;180(1):5-22. Cytotoxicity and oxidative mechanisms of different forms of chromium. Bagchi D1, Stohs SJ, Downs BW, Bagchi M, Preuss HG. Abstract Chromium exists mostly in two valence states in nature: hexavalent chromium [chromium(VI)] and trivalent chromium [chromium(III)]. Chromium(VI) is commonly used in industrial chrome plating, welding, painting, metal finishes, steel manufacturing, alloy, cast iron and wood treatment, and is a proven toxin, mutagen and carcinogen. The mechanistic cytotoxicity of chromium(VI) is not completely understood, however, a large number of studies demonstrated that chromium(VI) induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptotic cell death and altered gene expression. Conversely, chromium(III) is essential for proper insulin function and is required for normal protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and is acknowledged as a dietary supplement. In this paper, comparative concentration- and time-dependent effects of chromium(VI) and chromium(III) were demonstrated on increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, enhanced excretion of urinary lipid metabolites, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cell death in both in vitro and in vivo models. Chromium(VI) demonstrated significantly higher toxicity as compared with chromium(III). To evaluate the role of p53 gene, the dose-dependent effects of chromium(VI) were assessed in female C57BL/6Ntac and p53-deficient C57BL/6TSG p53 mice […] Read More

ChromeMate Baqchi

ChromeMate® Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1997 Sep;97(3):335-46. Comparative induction of oxidative stress in cultured J774A.1 macrophage cells by chromium picolinate and chromium nicotinate. Bagchi D1, Bagchi M, Balmoori J, Ye X, Stohs SJ. Abstract The concentration-dependent effects of chromium picolinate and chromium nicotinate were assessed on the enhanced production of reactive oxygen species including superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals, and lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in cultured macrophage J774A.1 cells. The macrophage cells were incubated with 0-50 micrograms/ml [corrected] concentrations of these chromium (III) salts for 0 and 24 hrs at 37 degrees C. Concentration-dependent effects were observed. Lipid peroxidation increased by 1.3-1.5-fold following treatment of these cells with chromium picolinate while at these same concentrations of chromium nicotinate approximately 1.2-1.8-fold increases in lipid peroxidation were observed. Increases of 1.0-1.5-fold occurred in the production of superoxide anion as determined by cytochrome c reduction following treatment with chromium picolinate while with these same concentrations and conditions only 1.1-1.2-fold increases in cytochrome c reduction were observed following treatment with chromium nicotinate. Approximately 1.2-1.5-fold increases in hydroxyl radical production were observed following treatment of these macrophage cells with increasing concentrations of chromium picolinate and chromium nicotinate. Incubation of the cells with 30-50 […] Read More

ChromeMate Jain 2007

ChromeMate® Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Oct;9(10):1581-90 High glucose and ketosis (acetoacetate) increases, and chromium niacinate decreases, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 secretion and oxidative stress in U937 monocytes. Jain SK1, Rains JL, Croad JL. Abstract Elevated blood levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) increase insulin resistance and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is no previous study that has examined the effect of ketosis and trivalent chromium on IL-6, IL-8, or MCP-1 secretion in any cell type or in human or animal model. The authors examined the hypothesis that ketosis increases and trivalent chromium decreases the levels of cytokines and oxidative stress in diabetes using a U937 monocyte cell culture model. Cells were cultured with control, high glucose (HG), and acetoacetate (AA) in the absence or presence (0.5-10 microM) of CrCl(3), chromium picolinate (Cr-P), or chromium niacinate (Cr-N) at 37 degrees C for 24 h. The data show a significant stimulation of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 secretion and an increase in oxidative stress in cells treated with HG or AA. The effect of HG on cytokine secretion was reduced by Cr-N, and to a lesser extent by CrCl(3) and Cr-P. The effect […] Read More

ChromeMate Jain

ChromeMate® Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 Oct 15; 43(8): 1124–1131. Effect of Chromium Niacinate and Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Lipid Peroxidation, TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, Glycated Hemoglobin, Triglycerides and Cholesterol Levels in blood of Streptozotocin-treated Diabetic Rats Sushil K. Jain, Justin L. Rains, and Jennifer L. Croad Abstract Chromium (Cr3+) supplementation facilitate normal protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and is widely used by public in many countries. This study examined the effect of chromium niacinate (Cr-N) or chromium picolinate (Cr-P) supplementation on lipid peroxidation (LP), TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1), cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) in diabetic rats. Diabetes (D) was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (ip, 65 mg/kg BW). Control buffer, Cr-N or Cr-P (400 µg Cr/Kg BW) was administered by gavages daily for 7 wks. Blood was collected by heart puncture using light anesthesia. Diabetes caused a significant increase in blood levels of TNF-α, IL-6, glucose, HbA1, cholesterol, TG and LP. Compared with D, Cr-N supplementation lowered the blood levels of TNF-α (p=0.04), IL-6 (p=0.02), CRP (p=0.02) LP (p=0.01), HbA1 (p=0.02), TG (p=0.04) and cholesterol (p=0.04). Compared with D, Cr-P supplementation showed a decrease in TNF-α (p=0.02), IL-6 (p=0.02) and LP (p=0.01). Chromium niacinate lowers blood […] Read More