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ChromeMate Olin

ChromeMate® Trace Elements and Electrocytes.(1994) Volume 1, Issue 4. P.182-186. Comparative retention/absorption of 51chromium (51Cr) from 51Cr chloride, 51Cr nicotinate and 51Cr picolinate in a rat model K. L. Olin ; D. M. Stearns ; W. H. Armstrong ; C. L. Keen Abstract Recently, there has been a renewed interest in better defining the metabolism of chromium (Cr) with respect to both its absorption and cellular action. In the current study we investigated the absorption/retention of 3 Cr(III) compounds (Cr chloride [CrCl], Cr nicotinate [CrNic], Cr picolinate [CrPic]) over a 12 h period in a rat model. Male rats (150 – 170 g) were gavaged with 44 μCi (2.7 nmoles) 51Cr as CrCl3 x 6H2O, CrNic or CrPic. Rats were killed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 h post-gavage. Cardiac blood was collected and liver, kidneys, pancreas, testes, and gastrocnemius were removed, weighed and assayed for 51Cr. The amount of51Cr in these tissues, along with that in urine (collected for the 6 and 12 h groups), was used to calculate 51Cr absorbed/retained. Urine, followed by muscle and blood, had the highest percent of absorbed/retained counts. For the majority of the time points and tissues, the average percent 51Cr retained was […] Read More

ChromeMate Penumathsa

ChromeMate® Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009 Jan;1792(1):39-48. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2008.10.018. Epub 2008 Nov 5. Niacin bound chromium treatment induces myocardial Glut-4 translocation and caveolar interaction via Akt, AMPK and eNOS phosphorylation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Penumathsa SV1, Thirunavukkarasu M, Samuel SM, Zhan L, Maulik G, Bagchi M, Bagchi D, Maulik N. Abstract Diabetes, one of the major risk factors of metabolic syndrome culminates in the development of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD). Refined diets that lack micronutrients, mainly trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) have been identified as the contributor in the rising incidence of diabetes. We investigated the effect of niacin-bound chromium (NBC) during ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were randomized into: Control (Con); Diabetic (Dia) and Diabetic rats fed with NBC (Dia+NBC). After 30 days of treatment, the isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. NBC treatment demonstrated significant increase in left ventricular functions and significant reduction in infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in Dia+NBC compared with Dia. Increased Glut-4 translocation to the lipid raft fractions was also observed in Dia+NBC compared to Dia. Reduced Cav-1 and increased Cav-3 expression along with phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS and […] Read More

ChromeMate Perricone 2010

ChromeMate® Mol Cell Biochem. 2010 May;338(1-2):91-103. doi: 10.1007/s11010-009-0342-8. Epub 2009 Dec 11. Long-term metabolic effects of different doses of niacin-bound chromium on Sprague-Dawley rats. Perricone NV1, Bagchi D, Echard B, Preuss HG. Abstract We simultaneously assessed benefits and risks of niacin-bound chromium (NBC) intake at varying doses over a prolonged period of time (>1.2 years) in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. We performed the study in two phases. First, we followed 60 male and 60 female SD rats, each gender divided into six groups. Through day 150 (phase 1A), all SD rats received a high sucrose diet (30% w/w) with or without different concentrations of NBC. The male/female groups were: 1] control without NBC n = 10, 2] low NBC (2.8 ppm, n = 10), 3] medium NBC (8.7 ppm, n = 20), 4] high NBC (28.0 ppm, n = 20). Based on dosing, we refer to the three treatment groups as 1X, 3X, and 10X. During days 151-312 (phase 1B), NBC was removed from diets of one half of the 3X and 10X groups. These are referred to as 3X satellite and 10X satellite. In phase 2 (days 313-460), males from groups 1X, 3X, 10X, 3X satellite, and […] Read More

ChromeMate Perricone

ChromeMate® J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Jul;102(7):1541-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2008.02.004. Epub 2008 Feb 23. Blood pressure lowering effects of niacin-bound chromium(III) (NBC) in sucrose-fed rats: renin-angiotensin system. Perricone NV1, Bagchi D, Echard B, Preuss HG. Abstract Excessive intake of sugars significantly elevates systolic blood pressure (SBP) in susceptible rats. Although the exact pathological mechanisms behind sugar-induced hypertension are uncertain and may be multiple, disturbances in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) manifested by elevated circulating levels of angiotensin-2 may be involved. We attempted to confirm that the RAS was significantly involved in sugar-induced BP elevations and examined whether the ability of niacin-bound chromium (NBC) to ameliorate sugar-induced SBP elevations was due, at least in part, through effects on the RAS. Initially, 40 mature Sprague-Dawley rats (SD), male and female, were involved in the study comparing two methods to estimate rat blood pressure indirectly. Then 13 were selected to examine the effects of NBC on the RAS. All rats eventually ingested a diet heavy in sucrose (30%w/w). In addition to blood pressure readings, the following procedures were implemented: insulin and losartan challenges, evaluation of serum ACE activity, measurement of serum angiotensin-2 levels, blood chemistries, and LNAME challenge. While dietary sucrose raised SBP significantly in control, […] Read More

ChromeMate Preuss 1995

ChromeMate® Clin Nephrol. 1995 Sep;44(3):170-7. Effects of chromium and guar on sugar-induced hypertension in rats. Preuss HG1, Gondal JA, Bustos E, Bushehri N, Lieberman S, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Anderson RA. Abstract Ingestion of sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose) by various rat strains is associated with perturbations in the glucose/insulin system and higher systolic blood pressure (SBP). The association suggests causality, because alterations in insulin metabolism have been found in essential hypertension and many experimental forms of hypertension. To test the hypothesis that sugar-induced SBP elevation is secondary to perturbed insulin metabolism, we examined in 2 experiments effects of chromium and guar, substances known to affect insulin metabolism, on SBP of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR). In both studies, sucrose compared to starch ingestion caused significant elevation of SBP; but addition of 2 chromium nicotinate complexes and guar prevented development of sugar-induced SBP elevations. The basal, genetic hypertension of the SHR was not affected by either nutrient. An additional finding in the first study was that sugar-consuming SHR supplemented with chromium had greater BW and increased organ weight (kidney, spleen, and liver) than nonsupplemented SHR. Accordingly, we have shown that two different mechanisms known to ameliorate insulin perturbations, use of chromium and […] Read More

ChromeMate Preuss 1997

ChromeMate® Clin Nephrol. 1997 May;47(5):325-30. Effects of different chromium compounds on blood pressure and lipid peroxidation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Preuss HG1, Grojec PL, Lieberman S, Anderson RA. Abstract In a previous study, we found that oral chromium nicotinate overcame sucrose-induced hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Accordingly, we examined more chromium compounds to determine if others were more or less effective in regulating blood pressure (BP) of SHR. Since chromium is postulated to be an antioxidant, we also assessed the ability of different chromium compounds to alter free radical formation measured by determining thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The control group of SHR ingested a diet low in chromium, and 5 other groups ate the same diet with various chromium compounds added at 5 ppm-chloride, acetate, nicotinic acid-glycine-cysteine-glutamic acid (NA-AA), picolinate, and nicotinate. Following this, the rats were challenged with drinking water containing 5% and 10% w/v sucrose. Except for NA-AA, all chromium compounds inhibited the sucrose-induced elevation of systolic BP; and acetate, picolinate, and nicotinate chromium compounds lowered HbAIC below control. Only chromium acetate and nicotinate significantly lowered both hepatic and renal TBARS. Chromium picolinate lowered hepatic TBARS, and chromium chloride and NA-AA lowered neither. We conclude that […] Read More

ChromeMate Preuss 2001

ChromeMate® Mol Cell Biochem. 2001 Jul;223(1-2):95-102. Long-term effects of chromium, grape seed extract, and zinc on various metabolic parameters of rats. Preuss HG1, Montamarry S, Echard B, Scheckenbach R, Bagchi D. Abstract Progressive insulin resistance may contribute to both enhanced glycosylation of proteins and nucleic acids and augmented free radical damage commonly associated with aging. Accordingly, ingestion of chromium and antioxidants which improve insulin sensitivity and/or lessen free radical formation could theoretically ameliorate these basic disorders and lessen signs and symptoms of chronic age-related disorders. However, this supposition is based primarily upon acute rather than chronic data. Therefore, we divided 104 F344/BN rats into 2 groups: a control group receiving a basic diet and a test group receiving the same diet with added chromium polynicotinate (5 ppm), zinc monomethionine (18 ppm elemental zinc), and a grape seed extract high in flavonoids (250 ppm). Initial mean systolic blood pressures (SBP) of both control and test groups were 122 mm Hg. Over the first 7 months, the SBP of the control animals steadily increased to 140 mm Hg and remained at this level for the next 7-8 months. In contrast, the SBP of the test animals initially decreased over the first 4 […] Read More

ChromeMate Preuss 2008

ChromeMate® J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Nov;102(11):1986-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2008.07.012. Epub 2008 Jul 31. Comparing metabolic effects of six different commercial trivalent chromium compounds. Preuss HG1, Echard B, Perricone NV, Bagchi D, Yasmin T, Stohs SJ. Abstract Recent reports provide cogent evidence that the average individual becomes chromium deficient with age. Unfortunately, chromium deficiency is strongly associated with many aspects of the Metabolic Syndrome, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Since replacement of chromium, per os, often ameliorates many deleterious manifestations associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, it is not surprising that many different, commercial trivalent chromium compounds are available on the market. However, previous reports have shown that the form of trivalent chromium (negative charges) can influence effectiveness markedly. We compared various commercial forms of trivalent chromium commonly used alone or in formulations, to examine whether they are equally effective and non-toxic. In the first study, five different chromium products were examined – citrate, amino acid chelate (AAC), chelavite, polynicotinate (NBC), and nicotinate. In the second study, effects of NBC and picolinate were assessed. Results demonstrated that only chelavite and NBC improved insulin sensitivity, and only NBC decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly. In the second study, both picolinate and […] Read More

ChromeMate Preuss

ChromeMate® Department of Physiology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA. Journal of medicine 01/2000; 31(5-6):227-46. Effects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: a pilot study. J Med H G Preuss, Dawn B. Wallerstedt, N Talpur, S. Osman Tutuncuoglu, Bobby Echard, A Meyers Abstract Hypercholesterolemia, a significant cardiovascular risk factor, is prevalent in the American population. Many drugs lower circulating cholesterol levels, but they are not infrequently associated with severe side effects. Accordingly, natural means to lower cholesterol levels safely would be welcomed. We examined 40 hypercholesterolemic subjects (total cholesterol 210-300 mg/dL) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The four groups of ten subjects received either placebo bid, chromium polynicotinate (Cr) 200 microg bid, grape seed extract (GSE) 100 mg bid, or a combination of Cr and GSE at the same dosage bid. Over two months, the average percent change +/- SEM in the total cholesterol from baseline among groups was: placebo -3.5% +/- 4, GSE -2.5% +/- 2, Cr -10% +/- 5, and combination -16.5% +/- 3. The decrease in the last group was significantly different from placebo (p < 0.01). The major decrease in cholesterol concentration was in […] Read More

ChromeMate Pruess 2002

ChromeMate® Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 May;957:250-9. Protective effects of a novel niacin-bound chromium complex and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on advancing age and various aspects of syndrome X. Preuss HG1, Bagchi D, Bagchi M. Abstract Aging is the progressive accumulation of changes with time that are responsible for the ever-increasing likelihood of disease and death. The precise cascade of pathological events mainly responsible for aging are still not clearly understood, but enhanced production of free radicals and its deleterious effects on proteins, nucleic acids, and fats, as well as enhanced glycosylation of proteins and DNA are prevalent during aging. Insulin resistance may be a common etiology, at least in part, behind the pathobiological alterations of advancing age. Prevalent age-related disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and cancer have been associated with impaired glucose/insulin metabolism and its consequences. This leads to future strategies to combat the aging process and chronic disorders such as the components of syndrome X associated with aging. Increasing the intake of antioxidants and/or substances recognized to enhance insulin sensitivity is a natural means of combatting the glucose/insulin perturbations and free radical damage. Accordingly, ingestion of niacin-bound chromium and natural antioxidants such as grape seed […] Read More