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Super CitriMax Leonhardt Preclinical

Super CitriMax® Nutrition Research. August 2004 Volume 24, Issue 8, Pages 659–669 Effects of hydroxycitrate, conjugated linoleic acid, and guar gum on food intake, body weight regain, and metabolism after body weight loss in male rats Monika Leonhardt, Sabine Münch, Margriet Westerterp-Plantenga, Wolfgang Langhans Abstract This study examined whether guar gum (Guar) and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modifies the long-term effect of hydroxycitrate (HCA) on food intake and body weight regain as well as on different blood and liver variables after substantial body weight loss. A total of 63 rats were fed restrictively for 10 days, then divided into seven groups and switched to ad libitum consumption. The diet contained 70% (w/w) carbohydrates, 9% protein, and 12% fat. HCA (3%) significantly suppressed food intake and body weight regain and neither CLA (1%) nor Guar (3%) increased the effect of HCA on these parameters. Also, CLA and Guar alone had no effect on food intake and body weight regain. The liver fat content of the combined HCA/CLA groups was significantly lower compared to that of the control group. All in all, this study confirms the robustness of the HCA effectiveness to reduce food intake and body weight regain after a period […] Read More

Super CitriMax Ohia Preclinical

Super CitriMax® Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 2001 Mar-Apr;109(3-4):210-6. Effect of hydroxycitric acid on serotonin release from isolated rat brain cortex. Ohia SE1, Awe SO, LeDay AM, Opere CA, Bagchi D Abstract There is evidence that hydroxycitric acid (HCA), an extract of dried fruit rind of South Asian trees of the genus Garcinia cambogia, can reduce food intake in experimental animals. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HCA on basal and potassium-depolarization evoked increase in radiolabeled serotonin ([3H]-5-HT) release from rat brain cortex slices in vitro. HCA (10 microM-1 mM) altered the baseline of spontaneous tritium efflux but had no significant effect on potassium-evoked release of [3H]-5-HT. When applied on its own, HCA (10 microM-1 mM) elicited a concentration-dependent increase in efflux of [3H]-5-HT reaching a maximum at 300 microM. We conclude that HCA can increase the release of radiolabeled 5-HT from the isolated rat brain cortex. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11758650 Read More

Super CitriMax Roy Preclinical 2007

Super CitriMax® DNA Cell Biol. 2007 Sep;26(9):627-39. Transcriptome of primary adipocytes from obese women in response to a novel hydroxycitric acid-based dietary supplement. Roy S1, Shah H, Rink C, Khanna S, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Sen CK. Abstract BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global public health problem. Traditional herbal medicines may have some potential in managing obesity. The dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, also known as Malabar tamarind, is a unique source of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which exhibits a distinct sour taste and has been safely used for centuries in Southeastern Asia to make meals more filling. Recently it has been demonstrated that when taken orally, a novel, highly soluble calcium/potassium salt of HCA (HCA-SX) is safe and bioavailable in the human plasma. Although HCA-SX seems to be conditionally effective in weight management in experimental animals and in humans, its mechanism of action remains unclear. METHODS: In this study, subcutaneous preadipocytes collected from obese women with body mass index>25 kg/m2 were differentiated to adipocytes for 2 weeks in culture. The effects of low-dose HCA-SX on lipid metabolism and on the adipocyte transcriptome were tested. HCA-SX augmented isoproterenol- and 3-isobutyryl-1-methylxanthine-induced lipolysis. Using oil red O, the production of lipid storage droplets by […] Read More

Super CitriMax Roy Preclinical 2003

Super CitriMax® Gene Expression, Volume 11, Numbers 5-6, 2003, pp. 251-262(12) Body Weight and Abdominal Fat Gene Expression Profile in Response to a Novel Hydroxycitric Acid-Based Dietary Supplement ROY, SASHWATI1; RINK, CAMERON1; KHANNA, SAVITA1; PHILLIPS, CHRISTINA1; BAGCHI, DEBASIS2; BAGCHI, MANASHI2; SEN, CHANDAN K.1 Abstract Obesity is a global public health problem, with about 315 million people worldwide estimated to fall into the WHO-defined obesity categories. Traditional herbal medicines may have some potential in managing obesity. Botanical dietary supplements often contain complex mixtures of phytochemicals that have additive or synergistic interactions. The dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, also known as Malabar tamarind, is a unique source of (−)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which exhibits a distinct sour taste and has been safely used for centuries in Southeastern Asia to make meals more filling. Recently it has been demonstrated that HCA-SX or Super Citrimax, a novel derivative of HCA, is safe when taken orally and that HCA-SX is bioavailable in the human plasma as studied by GC-MS. Although HCA-SX has been observed to be conditionally effective in weight management in experimental animals as well as in humans, its mechanism of action remains to be understood. We sought to determine the effects of low-dose oral […] Read More

Super CitriMax Shara Preclinical 2004

Super CitriMax® Mol Cell Biochem. 2004 May;260(1-2):171-86. Physico-chemical properties of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract and its effect on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days. Shara M1, Ohia SE, Schmidt RE, Yasmin T, Zardetto-Smith A, Kincaid A, Bagchi M, Chatterjee A, Bagchi D, Stohs SJ. Abstract Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a popular and natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) in the cytosol. Acetyl CoA is used in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides, and in the synthesis of acetylcholine in the central nervous system. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax) in weight management. Results have shown that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, enhances serotonin release and availability in the brain cortex, normalizes lipid profiles, and lowers serum leptin levels in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity, as well as Ames […] Read More

Super CitriMax Shara Preclinical 2003

Super CitriMax® Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Dec;254(1-2):339-46. Dose- and time-dependent effects of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days. Shara M1, Ohia SE, Yasmin T, Zardetto-Smith A, Kincaid A, Bagchi M, Chatterjee A, Bagchi D, Stohs SJ. Abstract (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia (family Guttiferae), is a popular supplement for weight management. The dried fruit rind has been used for centuries as a condiment in Southeastern Asia to make food more filling and satisfying. A significant number of studies highlight the efficacy of Super CitriMax (HCA-SX, a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia) in weight management. These studies also demonstrate that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, inhibits ATP-citrate lyase (a building block for fat synthesis), and lowers the level of leptin in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity studies have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract has been previously assessed. In this study, we have evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of […] Read More

UC-II Bagchi Preclinical

UC-II Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 2002;22(3-4):101-10. Effects of orally administered undenatured type II collagen against arthritic inflammatory diseases: a mechanistic exploration. Bagchi D1, Misner B, Bagchi M, Kothari SC, Downs BW, Fafard RD, Preuss HG. Abstract Arthritis afflicts approximately 43 million Americans or approximately 16.6% of the US population. The two most common and best known types of arthritis are osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A significant amount of scientific research has been done in attempts to explain what initiates forms of arthritis, how it is promoted and perpetuated and how to effectively intervene in the disease process and promote cartilage remodeling. Current pharmacological strategies mainly address immune suppression and antiinflammatory mechanisms and have had limited success. Recent research provides evidence that alterations in the three-dimensional configuration of glycoproteins are responsible for the recognition/response signaling that catalyzes T-cell attack. Oral administration of autoantigens has been shown to suppress a variety of experimentally induced autoimmune pathologies, including antigen-induced RA. The interaction between gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the duodenum and epitopes of orally administered undenatured type II collagen facilitates oral tolerance to the antigen and stems systemic T-cell attack on joint cartilage. Previous studies have shown that small doses of […] Read More

Zychrome Jain Preclinical

Zychrome® Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2010, 54, 1371-1380. Chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation can lower blood glucose, CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1, creatinine, apparently mediated by elevated blood vitamin C and adiponectin and inhibition of NFkB, Akt, and Glut-2 in livers of zucker diabetic fatty rats Sushil K. Jain, Jennifer L. Croad1, Thirunavukkarasu Velusamy1, Justin L. Rains1 and Rebeca Bull1 Abstract Chromium and cysteine supplementation can improve glucose metabolism in animal studies. This study examined the hypothesis that a cysteinate complex of chromium is significantly beneficial than either of them in lower blood glucose and vascular inflammation markets in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Starting at the age of 6 wk, ZDF rats were supplemented orally (daily gavages for 8 more weeks) with saline-placebo (D) or chromium (400 µg CR/Kg body weight) as chromium dinicocysteinate (CDNC), chromium dinicotinate (CDN) or chromium picolinate (CP) or quimolar L-cysteine (LC, img/Kg body weight), and fed Purina 5008 diet for 8 wk. ZDF rats of 6 wk age before any supplementations and onset of diabetes were considred as baseline rats. In comparison to D group, CDNC group had significantly lower blood glucose, HbA 1, CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1 and lipid peroxidation and increased vitamin C and adiponectin levels. CDN, […] Read More

Zychrome Jaine Preclincial – 2010

Zychrome® Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Sep;54(9):1371-80. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200900177. Chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation can lower blood glucose, CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1, creatinine, apparently mediated by elevated blood vitamin C and adiponectin and inhibition of NFkappaB, Akt, and Glut-2 in livers of zucker diabetic fatty rats. Jain SK1, Croad JL, Velusamy T, Rains JL, Bull R. Abstract Chromium and cysteine supplementation can improve glucose metabolism in animal studies. This study examined the hypothesis that a cysteinate complex of chromium is significantly beneficial than either of them in lowering blood glucose and vascular inflammation markers in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Starting at the age of 6 wk, ZDF rats were supplemented orally (daily gavages for 8 more weeks) with saline-placebo (D) or chromium (400 microg Cr/Kg body weight) as chromium dinicocysteinate (CDNC), chromium dinicotinate (CDN) or chromium picolinate (CP) or equimolar L-cysteine (LC, img/Kg body weight), and fed Purina 5008 diet for 8 wk. ZDF rats of 6 wk age before any supplementations and onset of diabetes were considered as baseline. D rats showed elevated levels of fasting blood glucose, HbA(1), CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1 and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and lower adiponectin and vitamin C, when compared with baseline rats. In comparison to […] Read More