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Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1997 Sep;97(3):335-46.
Comparative induction of oxidative stress in cultured J774A.1 macrophage cells by chromium picolinate and chromium nicotinate.
Bagchi D1, Bagchi M, Balmoori J, Ye X, Stohs SJ.


The concentration-dependent effects of chromium picolinate and chromium nicotinate were assessed on the enhanced production of reactive oxygen species including superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals, and lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in cultured macrophage J774A.1 cells. The macrophage cells were incubated with 0-50 micrograms/ml [corrected] concentrations of these chromium (III) salts for 0 and 24 hrs at 37 degrees C. Concentration-dependent effects were observed. Lipid peroxidation increased by 1.3-1.5-fold following treatment of these cells with chromium picolinate while at these same concentrations of chromium nicotinate approximately 1.2-1.8-fold increases in lipid peroxidation were observed. Increases of 1.0-1.5-fold occurred in the production of superoxide anion as determined by cytochrome c reduction following treatment with chromium picolinate while with these same concentrations and conditions only 1.1-1.2-fold increases in cytochrome c reduction were observed following treatment with chromium nicotinate. Approximately 1.2-1.5-fold increases in hydroxyl radical production were observed following treatment of these macrophage cells with increasing concentrations of chromium picolinate and chromium nicotinate. Incubation of the cells with 30-50 micrograms/ml concentrations of chromium picolinate produced 1.2-1.6 fold increases in DNA fragmentation, while under these same conditions with chromium nicotinate 1.2-1.3-fold increases in DNA fragmentation occurred. No significant loss in cell viability was observed with either chromium salt. These results demonstrate that incubation of macrophage J774A.1 cells with these chromium salts induces low levels of oxidative stress as demonstrated by the biochemical assay techniques employed in this study.


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