Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009 Jan;1792(1):39-48. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2008.10.018. Epub 2008 Nov 5.
Niacin bound chromium treatment induces myocardial Glut-4 translocation and caveolar interaction via Akt, AMPK and eNOS phosphorylation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Penumathsa SV1, Thirunavukkarasu M, Samuel SM, Zhan L, Maulik G, Bagchi M, Bagchi D, Maulik N.
Diabetes, one of the major risk factors of metabolic syndrome culminates in the development of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD). Refined diets that lack micronutrients, mainly trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) have been identified as the contributor in the rising incidence of diabetes. We investigated the effect of niacin-bound chromium (NBC) during ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were randomized into: Control (Con); Diabetic (Dia) and Diabetic rats fed with NBC (Dia+NBC). After 30 days of treatment, the isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. NBC treatment demonstrated significant increase in left ventricular functions and significant reduction in infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in Dia+NBC compared with Dia. Increased Glut-4 translocation to the lipid raft fractions was also observed in Dia+NBC compared to Dia. Reduced Cav-1 and increased Cav-3 expression along with phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS and AMPK might have resulted in increased Glut-4 translocation in Dia+NBC. Our results indicate that the cardioprotective effect of NBC is mediated by increased activation of AMPK, Akt and eNOS resulting in increased translocation of Glut-4 to the caveolar raft fractions thereby alleviating the effects of IR injury in the diabetic myocardium.
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