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Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Oct;252(1-2):369-77.
Effects of niacin-bound chromium, Maitake mushroom fraction SX and (-)-hydroxycitric acid on the metabolic syndrome in aged diabetic Zucker fatty rats.
Talpur N1, Echard BW, Yasmin T, Bagchi D, Preuss HG.


Previous studies in our laboratories have demonstrated that niacin-bound chromium (NBC), Maitake mushroom and (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) can ameliorate hypertension, dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus, and therefore may be useful in weight management. In the present study, we used aged, diabetic Zucker fatty rats (ZFR) (70-75 weeks) in order to determine whether NBC, fraction SX of Maitake mushroom (MSX) and 60% (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) from Garcinia cambogia, alone or in combination, can affect certain aspects of the metabolic syndrome. Syndrome X or metabolic syndrome has been described as a concurrence of disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, overweight and abdominal fat distribution, mild dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which are associated with subsequent development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Four groups of eight ZFR were gavaged daily with different supplements. For the initial three weeks, the control group of ZFR received only water, the second group received NBC 40 mcg elemental chromium/day, the third group received MSX 100 mg/day and the last group received HCA-SX 200 mg/day. During weeks 4-6, the doses of each treatment were doubled. The control animals lost approximately 50 g body weight (BW) per rat over 6 weeks of treatment, which is characteristic of these animals in declining health. In contrast, eight ZFR receiving NBC lost approximately 9 g BW per rat, while rats consuming MSX lost 16 g BW per rat. However, ZFR receiving HCA-SX simulated the pattern in the control group because these animals lost approximately 46 g BW per rat. The wide individual variations resulted in a lack of statistical significance among groups. Nevertheless, 75% of the ZFR in the control group lost more than 50 g BW over the 6 weeks duration, whereas none of the ZFR receiving NBC, 25% of the ZFR receiving MSX and 57% of the ZFR receiving HCA-SX lost over 50 g BW over the 6 weeks of the study. ZFR in all 3 treatment groups showed significantly lower blood pressures as compared to control, which seemed to be dose related. The general trend was for renal and liver blood parameters, hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation to improve due to the supplementation of these natural products. Treatment of animals with a combination of these three novel supplements resulted in a lower SBP and maintenance of BW compared to control animals. These results demonstrate that elderly diabetics and even aging individuals might benefit from a similar regimen.


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