Toxicol Mech Methods. 2007;17(4):189-96. doi: 10.1080/15376510600910469.
Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Undenatured Type II Collagen Singly or in Combination with Glucosamine and Chondroitin in Arthritic Dogs.
D’Altilio M1, Peal A, Alvey M, Simms C, Curtsinger A, Gupta RC, Canerdy TD, Goad JT, Bagchi M, Bagchi D.
This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of glycosylated undenatured type II collagen (UC-II) alone or in combination with glucosamine HCl and chondroitin sulfate in arthritic dogs. Twenty dogs divided into four groups (n = 5) were daily treated orally for 120 days: group I, placebo; group II, 10 mg UC-II; group III, 2,000 mg glucosamine + 1,600 mg chondroitin; group IV, UC-II (10 mg) + glucosamine (2,000 mg) + chondroitin (1,600 mg), followed by a 30-day withdrawal period. On a monthly basis, dogs were examined for overall pain, pain upon limb manipulation, and exercise-associated lameness. Serum samples were analyzed for markers of liver function (ALT and bilirubin) and renal function (BUN and creatinine). Body weight was also measured at a monthly interval. Dogs in group I exhibited no change in arthritic conditions. Dogs receiving UC-II alone showed significant reductions in overall pain within 30 days (33%) and pain upon limb manipulation and exercise-associated lameness after 60 days (66% and 44%, respectively) of treatment. Maximum reductions in pain were noted after 120 days of treatment (overall pain reduction, 62%; pain reduction upon limb manipulation, 91%; and reduction in exercise-associated lameness, 78%). The overall activity of the dogs in the UC-II supplemented with glucosamine and chondroitin group (group IV) was significantly better than the glucosamine + chondroitin-supplemented group (group III). Glucosamine and chondroitin alleviated some pain, but in combination with UC-II (group IV) provided significant reductions in overall pain (57%), pain upon limb manipulation (53%), and exercise-associated lameness (53%). Following withdrawal of supplements, all dogs (groups II to IV) experienced a relapse of pain. None of the dogs in any groups showed any adverse effects or change in liver or kidney function markers or body weight. Data of this placebo-controlled study demonstrate that daily treatment of arthritic dogs with UC-II alone or in combination with glucosamine and chondroitin markedly alleviates arthritic-associated pain, and these supplements are well tolerated as no side effects were noted.
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